|The Egg Tempera Binder|
|Basic Ingredients & Bonding Agents|
Ingredients to combine into your Egg Emulsions
|Egg||Yolk and/or White|
|Oils||Standoil, Popyseed, Linseed|
|Varnishes||Damar, Copal, Crystal, Alkyd|
|Waxes||Carnauba, colorless Bee wax, Saponified wax|
|Gums||Arabic, Damar, Mastic, Dextrine|
|Preservatives||Clove Oil, White Vinegar, Milk of figs|
|Egg Composition||Yolk||white||Whole Egg|
|Water||49,0 %||87,0 %||73,0 %||74 g|
|Water-soluble ingredients||17,5 %||13,0 %||14,5 %|
|Oily ingredients||33,5 %||12,5 %||11,5|
|Hens' Egg composition||Yolk||White|
|Water||49,5 %||86,2 %|
|Proteins||14,5 %||12,7 %|
|Dextrose||0,3 %||0,5 %|
|Cholesterol & gluten||5,7 %|
|Ash||1,0 %||0,6 %|
Saponified Wax Solution
|Saponified Wax flakes||1||1|
Bee Wax or Carnauba Wax Solution
|Lavender Oil (warm it to melt)||2|
|bleached Bee (or Carnauba)Wax cuttings||1|
Lefranc & Bourgeois
1 egg yolk (skin off) 15 ml 1 TBSP 1 egg white (eye removed) 40 ml 2 TBSP + 2 tsp 1 full egg 60 ml 4 TBSP
Do your manipulations with the most hygienic care possible. Avoid using metalic instruments as the egg can be affected by rust. Prefer glass or plastic instruments.
Weights and Measures Use Cups, Measuring Spoons and graduated Syringes (clean up with egg yolk).
1 tsp (tea spoon) = 5 ml - 1 TBSP (Table Spoon) = 3 tsp = 15 ml (ml = cm3)
1 L (Liter) = 1000 ml (Milliliter) = 1 kg (Kilogram) = 1000 g (Gram)
Kremer, Conversion of Weights and Measures
It is also possible to think by volume with a simple jar: Take a tube like jar, fill it with your first ingredient and make a mark to indicate the level of the content. This will become your volume of reference for the rest of the Emulsion.
Egg Emulsion Recipes
Egg Tempera | Egg Oil Tempera
It is recommended to experiment pure Egg Tempera first before Egg Oil Tempera. Start simple using a medium composed of the Egg Yolk itself with just a little bit of distilled water. It can be used on paper without any preparation and be worked as Aquarelle or gouache. Nevertheless it is far better and more easy to work than water color. Also it can be used on stones, plastered walls or gessoed boards for sophisticated accomplishments.
Egg Yolk Emulsion - very Polyvalent Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 1 15 ml 1 Distilled water 0 ml 5 ml 1/3 (White vinegar for preservation) (5 drops) (5 drops) Stir and gently shake the jar, eventually filter it
Egg White Water Varnish - glue for gold leaf Ingredients Volume 1 Egg white betted into snow 40 ml Collect the over night juice of the preparation
Egg Oil Tempera or Tempera Grassa
After experimenting pure Egg Tempera, you can get involved with Egg Oil Tempera o Tempera Grassa. To do so, combine the yolk with one or more of the Basic Ingredients. The most important ingredients are Damar varnish and Standoil, followed by Clove oil and Popyseed oil. The final property of your paint will be the addition of the different specific proporties from each one of the components included in different proportions in your emulsion. So it might be a good idea to do a preliminary test for each ingredient separatly with pigments. Basicly, an Egg Oil Tempera will be an adjustment between Egg Tempera and Oil painting. There is no standard recipe. What makes the richness of Egg Oil Tempera is that there are numerous and unlimited formulas. It is important to keep a personal book record where to write down each recipe you experimented, with acute appreciations and suggestions for improvements. Your emulsion will evolve accordingly to your experience gain through practice. After figuring out what does each specific ingredient, you will progressively adjust the composition of your Egg emulsion to your personal technical requirements for better achievements. You will probably continuously experiment and create new Emulsions.
Steps and Procedure
Carefully separate the yolk from the white. Roll the yolk gently around on a paper towel to rub off as much white as possible. Hold the yolk and puncture its sac. Let the yolk flow into a clean jar, eventually squeeze out the yolk. Little by little, stir your mixture of resinous, oily and waxy ingredients in the yolk and shake the jar. (If you use a kitchen electric blender be cautious about rust). Then if the white of the egg enter into your composition add it after having removed the germ. Keep mixing while adding your last ingredients such as preservatives and distilled water. Once the emulsion is done keep it into your refrigerator for long conservation. It will be usable as long as it will keep a clear smell. If done properly it can last for more than one year. For your daily use poor out a part of the emulsion from your main jar to a smaller container, for instance, a nostril plastic atomizer or a glass droper jar. Avoid contaminating your main jar to preserve your emulsion as long as possible.
Suggested Recipes for Egg Oil Tempera or Tempera Grassa
Egg Yolk waxy Emulsion Ingredients Volumes& Proportions 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 1 15 ml 1 Work with wax solution in a very small amount 0,6 ml 1/8 tsp 0,6 ml 1/8 tsp Distilled water 0 ml 5 ml 1/3 (+ White vinegar for preservation) (5 drops) (5 drops) Stir and gently shake the jar, eventually filter it
EggYolk waxy Emulsion
Ingredients Proportions & Volumes 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 1 1/2 Saponified Wax Solution 15 ml 1 1/2 Stir and gently shake the jar
Egg Yolk Oily Emulsion Steps Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 1 3/4 2 Linseed oil 5 ml 1/3 1/4 3 White vinegar (5 drops)
Egg Yolk Oily Emulsion Steps Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 4/6 15 ml 1 3/4 2 Standoil 2,5 ml 1/6 5 ml 1/3 1/4 Damar varnish 2,5 ml 1/6 3 Clove oil 10 drops
Egg White Emulsion for illuminations on parchment Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 Egg white betted into snow 40 ml Mix with honey or sugar 5 ml Collect the over night juice of the preparation let soak granuls of arabic gum in the juice 5 ml
Egg Yolk & white Oily Emulsion Steps Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 2/6 15 ml 1/3 15 ml 60 ml 2/3 egg white 15 ml 2/6 15 ml 1/3 40 ml 2 Damar varnish 7,5 ml 1/6 15 ml 1/3 15 ml 15 ml 1/3 Standoil 7,5 ml 1/6 4 Clove oil 10 drops
Egg Yolk & white Oily Emulsion Steps Ingredients Volumes & Proportions 1 1 Egg Yolk without the skin 15 ml 2/6 15 ml 1/3 15 ml 60 ml 2/3 egg white 15 ml 2/6 15 ml 1/3 40 ml 2 Damar varnish 7,5 ml 1/6 15 ml 1/3 15 ml 15 ml 1/3 Standoil 7 ml 1/6 Popyseed Oil 0,5 ml 4 Clove oil 10 drops
According to your choice of use & practice, you will have to adapt the fluidity of your medium.
Water Grinded Pigments
Slowly grind clay pigments into a paste with distilled water. Use a glass muller on a sandblasted piece of glass or marble. If you don't want to get through this truble, you can put the pigment and the distilled water in a sealed jar and shake it, it will work for most pigments. Try to get a non liquid past and to avoid it from drying, add some water on top of the past. Keep your titanium white into dry powder form. When ready to paint, scoop out some of the pasted pigment on the palette and mix it with a plastic palete knife, around 1 part of past for 1 part emulsion. If you want to experiment without investing into dry pigments powders, temporally replace the paste by the paint coming out from water color tubes.
Mix dry pigments directly with the emulsion. For more convenience use a pigment portable painting box.
While painting, keep your nose plastic atomizer close by and drop a little amount of the emulsion on the palette. With a dry and clean brush, come to pump some emulsion by capillarity. Then drop your brush into a dry pigment color, the dry color will stick on the brush, come back on the palette, mix and paint. It is often more appropriate to mix your paint with a palette knife and then apply it with your brush.